Archive for April, 2016
Nature stopped taking big chances half a billion years ago. All change in plants and animals since then has been cosmetic – a lion here, a zebra there, here a monkey, there a chimp – let’s add some brains and see what shakes out.
Nature abhors a gradient. This is the deepest fact of life on Earth. There is a gradient between the Pre-Big Bang omniverse and the void. That gradient generated the Big Bang. There is a gradient between the heat of the sun and the void of outer space generating life on Earth. A gradient between life itself and all of outer space that gives rise to all human culture aka the technium. The technium-void duality generates autos, washing machines, I-phones and digital communication and so on down the hierarchy of stuff ad infinitum. Life on Earth emerged and has developed to reduce a gradient.
Prokaryote: a single-cell organism without a nucleus. Bacteria and archaea are prokaryotes. There are more species of bacteria on Earth than any other life form. Bacteria comprise a large proportion of the Earth’s biomass. Archaea are simpler than bacteria and live in extreme environments and were Earth’s first living things 4 BYA (Billion Years Ago)
Eukaryote: An organism whose cells contain a nucleus. Eukaryotes may be single-cell ( but much more complex than bacteria) or multicellular as in all higher forms of life. Plants and animals are eukaryotes. All cells in a human have nuclei. Mnemonic: Humans like YOU – EU are EUkaryotes. All plants are eukaryotes.
“There never was a simple eukaryote cell – all complex life evolved from symbiosis of a primitive archaea and a bacterium. The cell nucleus and all other organelles evolved after this merger.” – Professor Bill Martin
All forms of animal and plant multicell life evolved from the merger of an archaea and an energetic bacterium – a single event in the history of life. Neither of these independent, free-floating prokaryotes had a nucleus or any complex organelles seen in cells today or 2 billion years ago at the time of this fateful merger. The energy gained by the acquisition of the energetic bacterium fueled the evolution of cell complexity, multicell life and the speedy evolution of diverse forms enabled by sexual reproduction i.e. the mixing and matching of two separate genomes for an improved model.
If biologists were carved into Mount Rushmore the four heads would be Charles Darwin, Gregor Mendel, James Watson and Lynn Margulis. Lynn Margulis ! Who the hell is she ! Lynn Margulis, when a grad student in 1967 , wrote a scientific paper called “On the Origin of Mitosing Cells” that proposed that chloroplasts and mitochondria, the vital energy-producing organelles in every eukaryotic cell, were ancient free-swimming microbes that merged into a neighbor cell to form a potent symbiotic duo that has evolved from a single-cell organism into all subsequent multicellular plants and animals on Earth for past two billion years. Margulis was ignored, marginalized or disparaged for many years after the publication of her paper but she persevered with her revolutionary theory and with the techniques of genetics developed during the late 1970s, her theory gained traction. Biologists now believe that this symbiosis was the single most important event in the history of life on Earth. It made all multicell life possible and gave rise to sexual reproduction and wide opportunities for cell complexity, purpose and genetic variation-evolution. Margulis’ reputation evolved from that of a shunned outlier to widely hailed genius in ten years.
Why was this Margulis Merger of simple but energetic bacterial cell and plain simple archaea so successful two billion years ago? What was happening inside cells that was not happening during life’s first 2.5 billion years? This new partnership greatly accelerated the role of life as a gradient reducer. Life was now going to help the cosmos reduce the difference between the chaos of the sun and the orderly cold, dark stillness of empty space at a much greater rate. Life exists to restore the order of emptiness. The bacterial partner of this historic merger evolved into mitochondria ( chloroplasts in plants – the things that make plants green). Mitochondria are tiny boiler rooms with thousands of molecular engines ( ATP synthase proteins), nano proton pumps, whirring and chumbling as they reduce atomic gradients across mitochondrial / chloroplast inner membranes. Proton pumping molecules generate and store energy used throughout the cell for protein production, cell replication, neuron signaling and all other cell functions day and night for the lifetime of the plant or animal. The Margulis Merger between bacteria and archaea ( see: Martin and Muller theory for details) speeded up life by a power of ten. Nature loves this successful, long-lived marriage of microbes. The merger greatly accelerates the reduction of the solar-void gradient. Big life speeds up the race to nothingness – nature’s comfort zone.
How did this marriage of two small, inefficient prokaryotic organisms occur? 2.5 BYA the Earth was all ocean teeming with trillions and trillions of archaea, bacteria and viruses-all very simple life forms with no cellular complexity. Due to the effects of orbital precession ( Earth’s wobbly diversion from a perfectly elliptical orbit in a perfect plane around the sun) and axial precession ( Earth’s wobble about its axis in 40,000 year cycles that cools and warms the planet) Earth entered an ice age during which the oceans began to freeze far beyond the polar region to the equator. This freezing created intense overcrowding among microbes. The albedo effect of a snowy Earth further accelerated this ice formation and compressed all microbes into a vast soupy freezing mass. Imagine a vat of rice five miles deep with each grain a living thing. The pressure at the lower reaches is immense, bodies merge, cell barriers are violated. 95% die from the shock of intermixing and the harsh environment. One pair of merged microbes survives with the energy required to fight for a place near the warm water. It warms itself and reproduces around a lens of melted water around its thermal vent. The same vent that created this life two billion years previously. Life had come full circle in the first 2.5 billion years – back to the vent but still as only a single cell with a powerhouse passenger. So we have our merged pair of microbes multiplying in this deep, dark but warm pool of water. A crack forms in the five mile thick ice crust reaching the surface and sunlight. Descendants of the original merged pair move with their new energy up to the light where solar radiation further speeds mutation-evolution. The ice melts over the next 100 million years, oceans gradually reappear and this new form of life, with its built-in powerhouse, thrives and dominates every niche. Land emerges from the sea, oxygenated atmosphere forms. Environments differentiate across the planet and plants and animals differentiate filling every niche. Unicellular life explodes into myriad multicell varieties. The race is on.
JB Questions and Observations:
- Reading a book is a gradient reducer. There is a magnetic gradient between a great unread book and a reader that begs to be eliminated in the service of the universal law of entropy. Reading a book causes life to grow just as life grows from the solar-cosmic gradient reduction engine.
- There is a gradient between an author and a story to be told whether fiction, non-fiction, memoir or cookbook. The stuff of story is a set of events that transpired to reduce social gradients public and private. The protagonist swears “The devil made me do it – the gradient had to be reduced !”
- Our social hierarchy is a finely tuned gradient comprising signals such as net worth, education, manners, age, good cheer and health. Our conspicuous commodities are shorthand messages; symbolic-totemic-talismanic abstractions for wising up others about our social standing in the technium. Dress for success. Where highlife meets lowlife at any of the above, the stuff of story emerges: wealthy woman meets impoverished poet = fireworks. Healthy teen meets autistic new kid on block = drama. Educated flower vendor meets dimwitted aristocrat- hijinx ensue. Combine three gradient disjunctions in each character for drama. Mix n’ match these elements of the great convection engine that is human society. Reverse gradient expectations – rich girl is kinesthetically challenged ( crippled from polio). Poor boy from slums is a mathematical genius, etc. What is a fish out of water ( one of seven classic story tropes) but a gradient waiting to be reduced?
- If the nuclear proteins NOTCH and P53 can make edits to DNA then a G-rev ( positive genetic mutation) at the P53 and or NOTCH gene can affect evolution as much as a great many base pair revisions.
- Are skin pigmentation and muscle composition controlled by mitochondrial proteins? People of different races burn muscle energy at different rates. Mitochondria are the source of all cell energy.
- Is there a link between toxic effects of high fructose corn sweetener and free radical leakage at mitochondria?
- Is the microscopic hydra in the same clade as squid?
- Was Noah’s flood caused by a glacial dam burst similar to the Missoula Flood that washed over Central Washington, Western Oregon and central Montana and covered this vast area in less than a day.
- Would the pressure of a five mile thick ice sheet have caused the lower level to remain unfrozen – a vast, dark, thin and deep ocean all around the globe? Would this glacial-melt ball bearing lubricant layer have made the entire Earth’s ice shell subject to tidal pull of the moon? Would the “low tide” inner ice ball surface have crushed one trillion microbes into one another twice each day forcing the issue of symbiosis?
- Could the momentum from a colossal, immediate release of water from a glacial dam burst cause either axial or orbital precession or both?
- Would this water interface between the iceball shell and the rocky Earth act as a ball bearing inducing rotational differential between earth and ice shell? Would rotation differential generate heat warming the deep thin water layer making it more suitable for evolution? Expanding warm water beyond thermal vents to the entire layer of melted ice?
- Are there correlations between Glacier lake- Earth orbital-axial irregularities and evolutionary events in the history of life?
- Has epigenetic inheritance had an effect on human tool use and the development of human culture? Is there hardwired genetic culture memory i.e. human culture transmitted by cellular stuff in addition to books, language etc.?
- There are three, four, five or six kingdoms of life on Earth depending on which scientist you ask. I like the six kingdoms model: 1.Plants-eukaryotes 2. Animals-eukaryotes, 3. Protists-single cell eukaryotes 4.fungi-eukaryotes 5. Archaea-prokaryotes 6. Bacteria-prokaryotes
- The are three domains: 1. Archaea, 2. Bacteria 3. Eukaryotes
- Slime mold has tentacles up to several yards long. Neurons in chordates have axons up to three feet long. Is the human neocortex a slime mold symbiont? Our brainstem covered with 85 billion slime connections evolved from a symbiotic parasite – the source of our “higher” intelligence. Perhaps higher is a misnomer as this explosion of network capacity may turn out to be disadvantageous for planet health.
- Is there more wood in the crossties of railroads or in all wood frame houses?
- Kevin Kelly, former executive editor of “Wired” magazine, proposes a neologism to encompass all of human culture, a single word: The technium – useful !
- What were the health effects of lead water pipes in Ancient Rome. Did decaying mental capacity caused by lead poisoning cause the demise of the Roman Empire?
“Equilibrium is death” – Dr. Nick Lane biochemist
The term Darwinian implies evolutionary change that is small and discrete. It may be small but it is interconnected in countless ways-not at all discrete.
We tend to think of whole animals evolving. Humans are a whole animal. We conceive of ourselves as a single unit but molecules, enzymes, lipids, nucleotides, genes, organ systems and relationships between organs evolve, quantum relationships evolve. Many levels of hierarchy of living systems co-evolve in a single organism. G-revs ( positive mutations) must coordinate with all others. A G-rev increasing the diameter of the ureter can upregulate the entire body in a single generation by positively affecting 10 trillion other cells. All systems in an organism must evolve in concert. All cells must communicate with one another. How? Sensory systems, messaging systems: quantum, atomic, chemical, mechanical communication throughout the body 24/7/365/life. The term “natural selection” doesn’t begin to suggest the scope of this inter-intra-organ communication. Competition in the real world of pine trees and bears is a trivial subset of behavior at the organism level ( the whole feeding, fighting f-ing animal). Does an RNA molecule compete with another RNA molecule or an enzyme? – no – but it communicates in many ways.
Ninety nine and nine tenths percent of all evolution occurs deep within the bodies of animals as G-revved somatic cells divide and multiply mixing and matching genes for improved function ( evolving) through a single lifespan in many cell divisions from tens to hundreds to many thousands. A human has 10 trillion ( with a T !) somatic cells distributed among twelve organ systems, featuring five vital organs: brain, heart, liver, kidneys, lungs. These organs speak to one another genetically during a single lifespan.
We traditionally hear about evolution in the form of animals fighting for sex and survival with the genes of winners proceeding to next round as offspring benefitting from G-rev. This is Modern Synthesis dogma ( Darwin meets Mendel) the core of contemporary biology – the Kool Aid of our time – Don’t drink it. For every battle between two lions, tigers, bullfrogs, snapping turtles or humans there are 50 trillion instances of cooperation and communication between cells in the service of DNA modification and evolution. Darwin’s “red in tooth and claw” trope is nano-trivial. Selection happens between somatic cells – other arenas of the hierarchy, from tribal populations to quarks are trivial. A new generation of major organ cells carries a net positive array of mutation or net negative array. The bad die young.
G-rev occurs 24/7/365 in every cell in our bodies. A mutation might serve a heart cell but throw the liver out of whack. Organs communicate genetically via chemical and electrical signaling coordinating G-rev among themselves. All for one – one for all. The positive accepted revisions are then registered in the germline DNA. G-rev is transmitted to the following generation. You could accrue one gazillion G-revs throughout eleven organ systems before you are twenty years old but if this G-rev bounty doesn’t appear in the germline when you mate, it’s sayonara to all of that potential improvement of the species. Nature is wasteful but it’s not stupid.
How do all cells communicate with one another, germline included, re: the usefulness of the latest mutation.How do the cells of our body communicate with one another? What is the pathway-vehicle- mechanism- medium? How are messages sent and received re: fitness of a mutation? Each of our twelve organ systems is crawling with neurons. Neurons are found throughout the vertebrate body not just in the brain. Most of us have by now heard of our gut and heart brains. We also have a pancreas brain and a lymphatic brain and a liver brain and a kidney brain. This population of neurons beyond the noggin sends gene-altering signals, mobile introns customized via neuron sparks, through a rhizomic neural network. Individual cells work together swapping information through the nervous system evolving in concert, giving the improved animal an advantage in head- butting. The primary arena of evolution is not jungle or ocean but infinite realms within each organism.
JB Teapot ( see: Russell’s Teapot) There is a clearinghouse in the brainstem collecting, sorting and distributing genetic information from neural systems of specific organs. Afferent ( incoming) information is compiled, sorted, compared, coordinated, summarized and coded then sent as a package to the germline for transmission to next generation of the whole organism.
- Is differential gene splicing involved in synthesizing hundreds of pitch and hue proteins of the cochlea and retina? Are the hundreds of different perception cells coded via post-translational modification ( phosphorylation, methylation, ubiquitination, etc)? See Notch proteins for most likely path to cell specificity.
- How much birdsong occurs beyond the upper range of human hearing?
- Each of our ten trillion cells has one million tiny energy factories ( mitochondria). Keep your mitochondria happy with a walk around the house a few times a day for better health – wake them all up with exercise. If they are awake and fulfilling their destiny they will make you happy. If they remain static they will kill you in 1,000 ways.
- Investigate the effect of high fructose corn sweetener on afferent neural function at hepatic cells ( liver). Does HFCS wreck signal processing via osmotic or osmolality CA+2 or K dysregulation
- Investigate induced remote organ G-rev, coordinated mutation, coordinated post translational modification to be encoded later in genome as base pair mod or histone acetylation, phosphorylation, methylation re:
- leukocyte influx at liver
- Channel-inducing factor at gut
- Vascular permeability at lung and or brain
- Neutrophil trafficking at heart
- Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor at brain
- JBT – The Blake Lens ( incorporating Dr. Nick Lane’s theory of Proton transfer) A circulating pool of melted ice water four miles below the ice sheet of snowball earth during the Huronian glaciation 2.4 billion years ago as possible location of emergence of life. The ice in small, deep zones in the ice block is melted by an alkaline thermal vent that pushes mineral-rich water from heated rocks far below through spongiform mineral towers forming proton gradients across membranes where organic chemicals lodge in small holes between flowing mineral rich water of differing PH, a chemiosmotic reaction. There is great pressure from weight of ice sheet in the presence of hot and cold water creating convection in the water as it travels from the zone of the heated vent tower into the chilled outer zones of the dark pool. There is a crack in the ice to the surface of the ice sheet four miles above where a pool of melted water is exposed to solar radiation. The Blake Lens provides an environment ideal for an orgy of endosymbiotic lateral gene transfer- experimentation.
JB Experiment: Locate existing thermal vent, flush and scour its internal compartments ( micropores) of all organic residue – create a clean breeding ground for new life – see if any new life emerges.
- Is there neural crosstalk between lungs and pancreas? Liver and lung? Is there Notch protein crosstalk in these organ systems?
- Ivy league universities are among the largest hedge funds in the world according to Ron Unz. JB idea: open these Ivy Hedges up to general population of investors multiplying their cash which is redistributed to students for free education at Ivys and elsewhere.
- Do inorganic molecules undergo any sort of selection – natural or otherwise?
- Organic matter itself is a great enzyme speeding up gradient reduction between the sun and outer space. The sun and the great cosmic void create a thermodynamic anomaly violating entropy that must be erased.
- Was the Big Bang a gradient reduction event erasing disequilibrium between adjacent universes?
- Investigate chains, cascades, hierarchies and taxonomies of disequilibrium from the big bang-adjacent universe to the sun-cosmos and all others down to membrane osmolarity and beyond, down into microcosmos.
- Would breathing antibacterial bathroom disinfectant ( dimethylbenzyl ammonium chloride) kill pneumonia in an infected person? If so, it would be less trouble than a doctor. Cure pneumonia in five seconds – don’t try this at home yet.
- JB neolog: Capacitor Effect: great reactivity built up behind a kinetic barrier that is released in an instant.
- Would UV radiation be more likely to stimulate the origins of life in an atmosphere without oxygen? Is there something prohibitive about oxygen that gets in the way of early life? Life emerging from non-life?
- Meteorite carrying cosmic amino acids crashes through the ice during Huronian glaciation 2.4 BYA (Billion Years Ago) and drops amino acid galactic passengers into a Blake Lens filled with mineral nutrients and proton gradient infused membranes – voila ! LIFE !
- A hurricane ( or any weather system) is a dissipative structure dissipating energy gradients.
- Is a city a living thing? It consumes stuff: energy, people etc. it grows and sends out new life as suburbs ( mini cities-little copies of itself), it excretes waste, cities die.
- If there is a manifestation in the physical world of string theory – strings that interconnect clusters of adjacent universes, why not such a network of strings in the microcosmos at human body or any animal or plant body? Strings interconnecting the cells of all organs with a rhizomic network sending G-rev signals to the germline?
- Would the pressure of ice five miles deep at Sturtian Glaciation (850-650 MYA) have crushed all hydrothermal vents into granules?
- Investigate migratory, Notch-infused dendritic cells for a role as G-rev messengers at and between all organs, especially from the brain to the germline.
- If a retrotransposon (jumping gene) can copy itself across an entire genome then why not from somatic cells to germline?
- A single cell consumes 10 million molecules of ATP ( from mitochondria) every second. Keep your mitochondria happy and you will be happy.
- What is the effect of ethyl alcohol ( wine, beer,whiskey, vodka etc) on epithelial lining of gastrointestinal tract? Is the pathogen barrier interrupted? Are lymphoid, myeloid, stromal players in this protection negatively affected? Does alcohol make one’s gut open to invasion by pathogens? Does alcohol inhibit barrier maintenance? Effects of ethyl alcohol on mitochondrial function?
- Investigate corelation: trapped oxygen differential at ice block between Huronian, Sturtian and Karoo glaciations and evolution. Organics processes at Blake Lenses in each of the three glaciations re: oxygen availability.
- Can an RNA molecule of any sort cause a neuron to fire its electrical charge or its chemical charge? Can it prevent such firing?
- Investigate: eukaryotic cell nucleus as a free-floating organism like precambrian mitochondria.
April 14, 2016 12:45 AM
The current evolutionary paradigm comprises two theoretical arenas: “The Central Dogma” and “The Modern Synthesis”. The Central Dogma is that DNA codes for RNA and RNA codes for proteins in that order, in that direction. It has since been modified to take into account proteins that modify DNA, that reverse the sequence. The Modern Synthesis refers to the conflation of Darwin’s natural selection acting upon random mutations with the ideas of Mendel regarding the realm of genetics. A key feature of Darwinism that remains fundamental to The Modern Synthesis is that genetic change via mutation is random, always random, forever random, NOT generated by the needs of an organism as it lives its life. A key assertion of The Modern synthesis is that genetic information is passed from one generation to the next by DNA in the germ line not by somatic cells. Germ line cells are sperm and eggs, somatic cells are all others, including heart, lung, kidney, liver, epithelium, brain etc. If a cell is not a sperm or egg it is a somatic cell. If a mutation is going to cause a change in the DNA of a mammal, either positive or negative it will happen in the DNA of an egg or sperm – nowhere else. DNA can mutate to high heaven in 10 trillion somatic cells according to The Modern Synthesis and have no effect on future generations.
Given Modern Synthesis dogma, only one-ten millionth of a man’s cells are available to undergo mutation related to possible evolution. For women, the ratio of somatic cells to germ cells ( eggs) is 1,000 times smaller. A woman produces 400 eggs per lifetime, a man produces 500 billion sperm. A woman’s eggs are exposed to the possibility of mutation for an entire lifetime. A man’s sperm turn over completely every 30 days i.e. 30 days from genesis in the testes to exit of the body.
I am not a creationist but these two currently operational theories demand the suspension of all reason, logic, common sense and intuition. We are supposed to believe that the future of all mammals depends on cosmic rays caroming through millions of cells from the top of the head to the gonads to strike a DNA molecule located in the well protected testicles or ovaries causing a mutation, with only one in ten thousand of these mutations being advantageous at a single genetic trait somewhere within 20,000 human genes. Believers in this catechism will remind us that mutations can also be caused by the stress and strain of cell division as chromatin wrangles itself up into chromatids at every cell division. We are also told that all cells possess chemical machinery that edits mutations out of DNA. The tales of the Holy Bible are more believable. There must be other mechanisms at work than those proposed in this dual Kool Aid combo. The exclusivity of The Central Dogma and The Grand Synthesis is the stuff of myth. These two time-worn theories comprise a paradigm that has generated much science over the past 70 years. The processes these two theories describe are too limited in scope, too slow and neither takes into account coordination between interconnected mechanical, electrical, chemical and quantum systems of organs and processes throughout the body. It is time for re-vision. Why would nature limit evolution to such an infinitesimal portion of the matter at hand?
- All ten trillion cells of the human ( mammal, vertebrate) body ( adjust total per species) participate directly in evolution via the transmission of genetic information between themselves ( somatic cells) and between all other somatic cells and the germline in a network. Animal evolution is not limited to random mutation in eggs and sperm DNA.
- Rename mutation. The word mutation implies a singular incident and an odd, irregular unfortunate occurrence. The word mutation has overtones of wrongness. Mutants are the stuff of sideshows. Let’s rename mutation as G-rev (Genetic revision) G-rev might involve DNA or histones or RNA – whatever tags along for the ride that creates a zygote.
- Reconsider the hardcore dogmatic element of randomness – little heritable DNA change is random.
- RE: random mutation – mutation is replaced with G-Rev ( Gene revision) and random is replaced with directed. Random mutation becomes directed G-rev.
- All cells send messages to the germline to be passed to the next generation. Every organ in the body not only communicates with each other’s form and process but all cells of every organ participate directly in productive evolutionary revision i.e. germ cell nuclear material modification.
- How does it work? Somatic cells send genetic info in the form of cRNA ( Courier RNA: JB neolog) to the germ line via surrounding tissue fluid collected in capillaries of the lymph system that runs from the brain dura mater lymphatics to the toes and all around each organ on toward the para aortic lymph nodes serving the gonads. RNA is then sorted and distributed to growing germ cell matrix for insertion into germ stem cell nuclear material or maturing (mature) eggs and sperm: DNA, histones and RNA. This RNA is tagged at each source organ specifying its destination at the appropriate germ cell DNA or other transmissible nuclear material.
- Sperm and eggs and their progenitors are continually processing new genetic information from all over the body.
- Over the course of twenty years a person’s skin cells have gone through 200 generations, each involving mitosis, crossing over etc – opportunity for evolution via G-rev. If an animal is able to register these beneficial changes into its genome for 200 generations in 20 years, it has advantages. It is not believable that nature would overlook such opportunity.
- Revisions to genetic material resulting in phenotypic expression during the lifetime of a single organism is called epigenetic change. To date this change has been considered un-inheritable for the most part because it is a normal function of somatic cell expression in all non-reproductive organs.
- Epigenetic information is not wasted. It is tested within a cell type for a few generations of that cell line and then forwarded to the germ cells. Neurons and all cells of the central nervous system are a part of this forwarding process for new genetic information. Neurons store epigenetic change ( memory) and forward it via the dura mater lymphatic-glymphatic system. Epigenetic change is stored and intermittently transferred to germline DNA via RNA in a reverse of Crick’s central dogma assertion of exclusivity of direction. This reverse directional effect of RNA on DNA has been seen for past 20 years in prion activity and reverse transcriptase studies.
- Epigenetic information becomes genetic in an avalanche of edits, updates, revision, change aka G-rev or as tradition has it – “mutation”
- G-rev is not typically a random occurrence from a UV or gamma ray strike upon a hydrogen or carbon molecule of a nucleotide, nor is it a collection of broken and re-assembled DNA strands. G-rev at the germline ( sperm / eggs) is constant, voluminous and locked into the genome for transmission into following generations.
- There are 220 types of somatic cells in the human body – they are not sterile as The Modern Synthesis asserts.
- G-revs are so numerous they appear to be adaptively directed from the somatic cells.
- Darwin proposed that evolution took place at the level of the organism in its real world environment the result of generations of struggle to survive and reproduce. Contemporary theorists have suggested the gene itself is the operant realm of evolution ( Richard Dawkins) and others ( Stephen Jay Gould) assert that it is the the species upon which natural selection/genetic drift/genetic flow act
- This is how it works: Step One: nuclear material at somatic cells is epigenetically modified as histones undergo post translational modifications ( methylation, acetylation, citrullination, ubiquitination, SUMOylation, ADP ribosylation, phosphorylation) The cell, in rapid succession says “try this, no this, now this, OK this one’s a keeper” The cell uses this change for a few hundred or a few thousand cell replications of epigenetic inheritance within the tissues of an organ to test it before sending info via RNA through the lymph system to gonads where oogenesis(egg making and spermatogenesis (sperm making) are underway prior to for further editing and insertion as new G-rev base pair sequence at DNA in Sperm or eggs. Descent with modification at 10 trillion somatic cells followed by descent across organism for trials of offspring against all comers for food, sex, survival.
- There is no such thing as non-coding DNA. all DNA at chromosomes participates in sorting, editing and storing somatic cell information prior to conversion into a protein signaling gene.
Our society has a germline seen as movies, novels, art museums, television, newspapers, magazines, scientific journals, professional sports teams and textbooks. There is intense competition to participate in these avenues of influence. We struggle and conspire to contribute as if we would evaporate unseen into the cosmic ether if our paintings didn’t find a New York gallery or if our screenplay is not turned into a feature film or our scientific paper is rejected by the prestigious journal or if we don’t make the starting line-up on the soccer team. The cultural germline has intensely policed channels. We are trained to believe that getting into this germline matters more than it does. Each life matters as much as the next and all lives send an enormous amount of information into following generations in countless ways – no major label record deal required.
Every person (cell) in the body ( society) signifies and each sends vital information to the next generation by individual, thought, behavior, action, and mood throughout life. It is the way of the world that each of the carbon units ( us) plays a role in determining what gets transmitted, what lives and what dies. Private thought and action is sorted and finds its way to local, state and national influencers, germline politicians, cultural gatekeepers at school board meetings, elections, publishing houses and art museums. We vote with our bodies as we drink the fresh water piped in from the water treatment plant, use the sewer system and shop at the supermarket. We vote with our bodies and our pocketbooks as we drive process and product to prominence or decay. We have a choice to litter or not, to smile at the cashier or not. Individual action born of individual thought and feeling gets collected just as information at ten trillion cells gets collected.
- Perhaps all somatic genetic information is routed via lymph system to the pons first where it is sorted prior to transport to the germline
- There are 323 million people living in the USA. where is the germline? How might one get his / her ideas into it for guaranteed transfer of one’s unique contribution into the next generation. What is the American counterpart to the lymph system G-rev pipeline. A movie screen is like a giant penis shooting spermey ideas out into the audience. A college professor is an erection of sorts firing his material into an audience that might contain a receptive mind or two.
- If a railroad track is a metaphor for a society’s path into the future. Would the crossties be individual people? Would the intense regimentation of RR crossties reflect the sameness of language or an array of ethical beliefs, shared religion, marriage rites etc. Would the unique patterns of wear and tear on each crosstie reflect the scope of our individuality?
- Bertolt Brecht was the Mother Teresa for the Stalinist incarceration of millions of Soviet citizens. Brecht gave Stalin a free pass from day one until Stalin’s death in 1953. To Brecht, Stalin was a great unifier who defeated the Germans. Brecht chose not to see the millions of Soviet citizens who were interned in the Gulag archipelago.
- Brecht was the king of agitprop theater ( AGITationPROPaganda). I wonder if he was on Stalin’s payroll throughout his theatrical career? Brecht was the Picasso of 20th century theater with a great influence on Americans Tennessee Williams, Clifford Odets, Arthur Miller.
- Perhaps there has been little need for any organism to ever evolve or evolve from scratch when it can simply incorporate systems from other animals and plants each with its own special gifts. Much biosynthesis ( per Lynn Margulis) Very little new stuff in plants and animals as they evolve.
- What was the first organism to see, hear, breathe oxygen, touch, smell, use blood to move chemicals through its body?
- What happens at olfaction? How does a smelly molecule affect neurons to sense a smell?
- What were the proto-organs for each modern organ? How were genomes modified to deliver functional units to offspring?
- Maybe instead of lymph, the network that transports genetic info from somatic cells to germline is entirely invisible and operating in a quantum network.
- Random mutation playing out via natural selection and genetic drift is crude, too undirected even with hundreds of millions of whole life generations across eons. The picture must be bigger.